Solid and liquid at a time: New phase of matter

New phase of matter.

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Three phases of matter, solid, liquid and gas are known to all. But under certain pressure and temperature condition, some exotic varieties are discovered by physicists that are different from solid, liquid, and gas. Currently, artificial intelligence is incorporated by a team of physicists to find a new state of matter. In that discovery, the atom of potassium can be in both liquid and solid phase at the same time. If a chunk of that material is taken, it will look like the block of hot thing gradually dissolve away. Potassium is usually found in Earth’s mantle. It normally bound with other materials to result in a product. Potassium is not found in its pure form commonly, the unusual shape of this mineral only exist in earth’s mantle. It is believed that similar experiments can be done on other minerals under extreme conditions.

The study by Andreas Hermann- a condensed matter physicist in Edinburgh University, describes the state of potassium is like a sponge that is filled with water and starts dripping out, then dissolves away. The study conducted by Edinburgh and the team has been published in Proceedings of National Academy of Science. Potassium is bound with other metals as it is a good conductor of electricity and heat when shaped to a solid bar. The crystalline structure of the metal can be shaped to the microscopic level, so scientists believed it would be easier to predict all the state of this matter. When potassium is subjected to extreme conditions, the atom of potassium arranges themselves to make an elaborate formation. Hermann and the team have used an artificial intelligence machine called a neural network. The machine has learned how the behavior is to be predicted based on the previous example.

About fifteen years ago, physicists found some strange properties of similar mineral sodium when compressed to a certain environment. Sodium has transformed into a transparent material to a silvery block given 20,000 times the pressure of earth. The material under pressure doesn’t conduct electricity but prevent the flow of power. As per the scientists, A mixed crystal has been formed instead of a simple structure, when sodium is probed with X-rays. Sodium has similar properties as potassium, so the current experiment done on potassium is under the same condition.  The artificial intelligence machine resulted that, potassium enters into chain melted state, between 20,000 to 40,000 times atmospheric pressure and 260 to 980 degrees Fahrenheit (400 to 800 Kelvin). In this condition, the chain of potassium atom turned into liquid, and the other remains in solid state.

Image Courtesy: Phys.org

The computer model discovers the new state of the matter by incorporation of artificial intelligence. Concerned machine learning techniques can be used to study the behavior of other minerals and substances. Most of the elements changed the state strangely under high pressure and temperature in the universe. Now potassium has joined the list of matters that have different states other than solid, liquid and gas. The discoveries by scientists recently confirmed the state, which is solid and fluid at the same time.

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